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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October




III(14), Issue 65, October




Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October


Editorial board
Editor-in-chief: Dr. Xnia Vmos
Honorary Senior Editor:
Jen Barkts, Dr. habil. Nina Tarasenkova, Dr. habil.
Andriy Myachykov, PhD in Psychology, Senior Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences,
Northumbria University, Northumberland Building, Newcastle
upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Edvard Ayvazyan, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, National
Institute of Education, Yerevan, Armenia
Ferenc Ihsz, PhD in Sport Science, Apczai Csere Jnos Faculty
of the Universityof West Hungary
Ireneusz Pyrzyk, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, Dean of Faculty of Pedagogical Sciences, University of Humanities and Economics in Wocawek, Poland
Irina Malova, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, Head of Department of methodology of teaching mathematics andinformation
technology, Bryansk State University named after Academician
IG Petrovskii, Russia

Oleg Melnikov, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, Belarusian State

University, Belarus
Riskeldy Turgunbayev, CSc in Physics and Mathematics, associated professor, head of the Department of Mathematical Analysis, Dean of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the Tashkent State edagogical University, Uzbekistan
Roza Uteeva, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, Head of the Department of Algebra and Geometry, Togliatti StateUniversity,
Seda K. Gasparyan, Doctor of Science in Philology, Department
of English Philology, Professor and Chair, Yerevan State University, Armenia
Svitlana A. Zhabotynska, Doctor of Science in Philology, Department of English Philolgy of Bohdan Khmelnitsky National,
University of Cherkasy, Ukraine

Irina S. Shevchenko, Doctor of Science in Philology, Department of ESP and Translation, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National
University, Ukraine

Tatyana Prokhorova, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, Professor

of Psychology, Department chair of pedagogics andsubject technologies, Astrakhan state university, Russia

Kosta Garow, PhD in Pedagogy, associated professor, Plovdiv

University Paisii Hilendarski, Bulgaria

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Head of department of political analysis of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine

Lszl Ktis, PhD in Physics, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungary, Budapest
Larysa Klymanska, Doctor of Political Sciences, associated
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Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine
Liudmyla Sokurianska, Doctor of Science in Sociology, Prof.
habil., Head of Department of Sociology, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv
National University
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in Wocawek, Poland
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department of anatomy and physiology of humans andanimals,
Bohdan Khmelnitsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine
Zinaida A. Kharitonchik, Doctor of Science in Philology, Department of General Linguistics, Minsk State LinguisticUniversity, Belarus
Zoltn Por, CSc in Language Pedagogy, Head of Institute of
Pedagogy, Apczai Csere Jnos Faculty of the Universityof West

Olga Sannikova, Doctor of Science in Psychology, professor,

Head of the department of general and differential psychology,
South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University named after
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Managing editor:
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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October


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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October


The concept of LEFT (ap) in the lingual consciousness of the Persian native speakers
O.V. Mazepova

Linguosynergetic parameters of euphemia/dysphemia in the English language

L.V. Mosiyevych . 10
Cultural Background as a Precondition of Adequacy in Translation (based on bringdadabeer.comways short
T. Nekriach, R. Dovganchyna .. 13
Challenges in Rendering Social Status Markers in the Translation of the XIX Century English Fiction
Yu. Popovych 17
Semantic Models of English Environmental Protection Terms
bringdadabeer.com Salamakha 21
Idiolect of Fiction Character in Translation
bringdadabeer.com Shcherbak . 25
National and cultural features of combinability of emotive particles in the German language
T. Schibrik 28
Le symbolisme phontique dans le premier thtre de Maurice Maeterlinck
D.O. Tchystiak 31
.. 37

.. 41
.. 45

.. 50

.. .. 53
The Snake Pit:

.. .. 57
. . :
.. .. 60

.. . 64
.. .. 69

.. .. 72

.. 76
.. 80

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October


The concept of LEFT (ap) in the lingual consciousness

of the Persian native speakers
O.V. Mazepova*
Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Institute of Philology, Department of Middle Eastern Studies, Kyiv, Ukraine
*Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected]
Paper received ; Revised ; Accepted for publication
Abstract. In the frameworks of modern anthropocentric linguistics the researches focused on explicating the semantics of conceptual
binary oppositions inherent in various cultures are of particular interest. The "right-left" binary together with other oppositions such
as "up-down", "far-near", "good-bad", "self-other", etc. belongs to basic cultural oppositions derived from ancient archetypical concepts. The paper explores the concept of LEFT (pers. "ap") as a part of the "right-left" binary existing in the Persian lingual consciousness and by this example represents the methodic of studying concepts based on combining the cognitive linguistics approach
with psycholinguistic experiment.
Keywords: binary opposition, cognitive approach, conceptual structure, lingual consciousness, psycholinguistic experiment

The anthropocentric paradigm in humanitarian knowledge,

which came into being on the edge of XX-XXI centuries,
caused an increasing attention from linguists towards the
problems of human status, his communication with other
people, and conceptualization of his outer and inner world.
The issues of the world conceptualization are mainly discussed within two relatively new fields in linguistics,
namely cognitive linguistics and cultural linguistics. Cognitive linguistics regards linguistic phenomena as products of
human experience; its main focus is on how human beings
comprehend, manipulate and metaphorically extend meanings. The cognitive approach to studying natural languages
creates new opportunities for investigating conceptual
structures of human consciousness [7; 12]. Cultural linguistics focuses on interrelationships between language, culture, and conceptualization, taking into account that various
cultures provide different perceptions of reality and that
languages reflect such variations [13; 5]. Cultural approach
in linguistics is referred to the theory by W. von Humboldt,
conception by Leo Weisgerber, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis of
linguistic relativity, and works by others researchers who
claim that each language community has its own worldview, different from that of other groups.
Among researches concerning the expression of cultural information by linguistic signs, the works focused on
explicating the semantics of conceptual binary oppositions inherent in the consciousness of representatives of
various linguistic and cultural communities are of particular interest. One of these oppositions is the right-left
binary which together with other oppositions such as "updown", "far-near", "good-bad", "self-other", etc. belongs
to basic cultural oppositions derived from ancient archetypical concepts. Great attention towards binary oppositions within the frames of relatively new linguistic
streams is explained by the fact that these oppositions are
being thought as powerful tools to elucidate the fundamental structure of human consciousness, culture, and
language [4; 9; 8]. The content of this opposition in the
Persian lingual consciousness has not been studied yet.
The goal of this paper is to determine the content of the
concept of LEFT as a part of RIGHT-LEFT binary in the
Persian lingual consciousness on the basis of psycholinguistic experiment conducted with Persian native speakers
and further cognitive interpretation of its results. Thus, the
main approach of this paper is based on combination of
two methods cognitive and psycholinguistic involved

in the process of reconstructing certain conceptual structures in human consciousness.

It is well known that in most cultures and languages
"right" is almost always thought of positively, whereas
"left" is negatively connoted. This fact is usually explained as the outcome of universal human evaluation
process, partly based on the principle of embodiment [11].
The article is also aimed to prove or deny this observation
regarding the concept of LEFT in the Persian language
and culture.
Interest toward the Persian "right-left" binary was induced by need of better understanding conceptual binary
"truth-lie" (pers. "rsti-doruq"), which we studied before.
The necessity appeared due to the word "rst" one of the
main lexical representatives of the Persian concept of
TRUTH which is poly-semantic and beside the meaning
"truth" possesses at least four additional meanings, viz.:
1) strait, of no deviations; 2) actual, real; 3) righteous;
4) right [1, p. ]. Bearing in mind that analysis of responses to this stimulus demonstrated considerable actualizing of the meaning "right", the problem appeared how
and to which extent the concept of RIGHT correlates with
its opposition the concept of LEFT within the structure
of the Persian lingual consciousness. Therefore with the
view to determine real psychological content of this conceptual binary we appealed to the Persian native speakers.
In our research psycholinguistic experiment was carried out in its two variants. At the first stage in the process
of the free associative experiment (AE) the list of 20
words-stimuluses including the word "ap" (left) was read
for the respondents mostly students of Tehran State
University. The task was to write down the first wordresponse to each word-stimulus. At the second stage the
method of "direct explanation" or "expanded word definition" was applied (see [2, p. ; 3, p. ]) when the
Persian native speakers were asked to explain their own
understanding of the listed words. On the basis of the AE
data there was formed an "associative field" (AF) of the
examined concepts. Their "semantic field" (SF) was
molded after the results of analysis of submitted expanded
predications. Then the data were processed and interpreted corresponding to their rank frequency.
The Associative Field (AF) of the word-stimulus "ap"
(left) is structured traditionally from the stimulus towards the response; at first having fixed the core (most
frequent responses), and then the periphery (less frequent and single responses) of the AF. Number of the

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October


respondents who reacted to the stimulus in appropriate hezb-e siysi political party (1), rstgar follower of right
way is specified in the breaks. When processing the re- doctrine (1);
sults of AE it was decided to combine the responses after
3) crooked, not straight, overturned (11 units =
semantic similarity or derivative relations. Therefore all 12,36%): kaj bent (3), kai curvature (2), enherf deviaresponses, which were in the mutual relations of synony- tion (1), tasdof traffic accident (1), xatke ruler (1),
my or derivation and expressed the same idea, were en- rnande driver (1), rh-e kaj crooked way (1), vjeguni
closed to same group. In the AF specified below at first overturn (1);
one can see the responses combined after the mentioned
4) left hand, left handed (8 units = 8,99%): dast
method, and then one-word responses.
hand (3), apdasti to be left handed (2), apdast left
F of the word-stimulus "ap" (left)
handed (1), dast-e ap left hand (1), man apdast-am I am
I Responses combined on the basis of semantic simi- left handed (1);
larity or derivative relations:
5) different, opponent (5 units = 5,62%): bar aks vice
Related to righteous, truth (13): rst correct, right (7), versa (1), dr-ye afkr-e motafvet one of different
moxlef-e rst opposite to right (3), rsti truth (2); qeyr-e mind (1), fekr-e ap left (different) idea (1), motafvet
rst not right (1); politics (12): komunism communism (3), another, different (1), motafvet budan to be different (1);
siysat politics (2), eslhtalab reformer (2), jenh-e siysi
6) musical instrument (1 unit = 1,12%): sz musical
political wing (2), apgar follower of left doctrine (1), instrument (1);
rstgar follower of right doctrine (1), hezb-e siysi politi7) connotative meanings (24 units = 26,97%): badi
cal party (1); side (8): samt-e ap left side (3), jehat evil (3), bad bad (2), ehss feeling (1), badbaxti bad
side (3), samt side (1), taraf side (1); hand, left handed luck (1), bidin disbeliever (1), birhe roaming (1), triki
(8): dast hand (3), apdasti to be left handed (2), man darkness (1), jahannam hell (1), de Islamic State (1),
apdast-am I am left handed (1), dast-e ap left hand (1), dust nadram I dont like (2), rh-e qalat wrong way (1),
apdast left handed person (1); curvature (6): kaj bent (3), saxt difficult, hard (1), eytn Shaytan, devil (1), qiymat
kai curvature (2), rh-e kaj crooked way (1); different (5): Dooms Day (1), kosxol fool (1), kone action, step (1), gij
motafvet other, different (1), motafvet budan be differ- worried (1), gijkonande misleading (1), mh month, nent (1), dr-ye afkr-e motafvet someone of different momken impossible (1).
mind (1), bar aks vice versa (1), fekr-e ap left (different)
Thus, of 89 non-zero responses 65 ones explicate 6 meanopinion (1); evil (5): badi evil (3), bad bad (2); way (4): ings of the word "ap" (left). Other 24 responses are those,
rh road (1), masir route (1), rh-e qalat wrong way (1), which either realize connotative meanings of this word, or
birhe roaming (1); street (2): xiybn street (2); wor- demonstrate pure associations to it. Of them 20 units or
ry (2): gij worried (1), gijkonande misleading (1); do not 83% are of negative connotation.
like (2): dust nadram I dont like (2);
In order to classify all responses in formal way we diII One-word responses:
vided them into several groups depending on the type of
ehss feeling, enherf deviation, badbaxti bad luck, bidin response, namely: paradigmatic, syntagmatic, thematic,
disbeliever, triki darkness, tasdof traffic accident, ja- evaluative, and personal. Paradigmatic responses demonhannam hell, halqe-ye ezdevj wedding ring, xatke ruler, strate that the word-stimulus and the certain response may
de Islamic State (terrorist organization), rnande driv- be in any of the following states: co-ordination, suber, sz music instrument saz, eytn Shaytan, devil, saxt ordination, super-ordination, or antonymy. Obviously in the
heavy, kenr bank, shore, qalb heart, qiymat Dooms process of determination of the paradigmatic responses
Day, kosxol fool, kone action, step, mh month, lexical-semantic variants (LSV) of the word-stimulus
nmomken impossible, vjeguni overturn
should be taken into account. In syntagmatic relations we
Rejected (9). Subtotal: 89+ 9.
face appearance of the word-stimulus and the wordAccording to the dictionary of the Persian language by response as parts of one syntagma. Thematic association
Hasan Anvari () the word "ap" possesses nine explicates the possibility of the both words to play the semeanings, viz.: 1) side or direction Westward when facing mantic roles of actants in certain situation i.e. they could be
North (opposition to right); also corresponding side of used together within the frameworks of thematically limhuman body; 2) (polit.) one who demands quick social ited context. Evaluative associations demonstrate attitude
changes or follower of socialism and communism; 3) and evaluations of the respondent towards the idea excross-eye; 4) different; rival, foe; 5) musical term; 6) pressed by the word-stimulus. Personal responses shall
pocket; 7) curved, not straight; overturned; 8) (mil.) mili- mean those referring to own experience of the respondent
tary term; 9) left handed [1, p. ]. Results of our exper- (e.g. I love it) (see [6; 2]). The results of the formal classifiiment prove that the following six meanings (or lexical- cation of the collected responses are as follows:
semantic variants) of the word "ap" (lef) are most actual- paradigmatic (45 units = 45,92%): LSV 1: jehat direcized in the Persian lingual consciousness:
tion (5), moxlef-e rst opposite to the right (4), rst
1) side, direction (28 units = 31,46%): rst right (7), jeright (9); LSV 2: ap dar siysat left wing (12); LSV 3:
hat direction (3), samt-e ap left side (3), moxlef-e rst
kaj crooked (6), vjeguni overturn (1); LSV 4: dast
opposite to right (3), xiybn street (2), rsti truth (2), taraf
hand (3); LSV 5: motafvet other, different (4); LSV 6:
side (1), samt side (1), halqe-ye ezdevj wedding ring (1),
sz musical instrument saz (1);
rh road (1), qeyr-e rst not right (1), qalb heart (1), kenr syntagmatic (8 units = 8,16%): samt-e ap left side (3),
bank, shore (1), masir route (1);
apdasti to be left handed (2), apgar follower of the
2) left in Politics (12 units = 13,48%): komunism (3),
left doctrine (1), dast-e ap left hand (1), fekr-e ap left
siysat politics (2), eslhtalab reformer (2), jenh-e siysi
idea (1);
political wing (2), apgar follower of left doctrine (1), thematic (20 units = 20,41%): xiybn street (2), ehss
feeling (1), enherf deviation (1), badbaxti bad luck (1),

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October
triki darkness (1), tasdof traffic accident (1), jahannam
hell (1), halqe-ye ezdevj wedding ring (1), xatke ruler
(1), de Islamic State (1), rnande driver (1), rh road
(1), eytn devil (1), qalb heart (1), kenr bank, shore (1),
masir route (1), qiymat Dooms Day (1), kone action,
step (1), mh month (1);
evaluative (13 units = 13,27%): badi evil (3), bad bad (2),
bidin disbeliever (1), birhe roaming (1), rh-e qalat
wrong way (1), saxt difficult, hard (1), kosxol fool (1), gij
excited (1), gijkonande misleading (1), nmomken impossible (1);
personal (3 units = 3,06%): dust nadram I dont like (2),
man apdast-am I am left-handed (1).
To form the semantic field (SF) of the word "ap"
(left) all explanations collected after completion of the
experiments 2nd stage were divided into several "semantic subdivisions" comprising all types of language units of
similar meaning: separate words, combination of words,
parts of sentences, and phrases. The basis for such division was a provision used in Cognitive linguistics regarding particularities of cognitive interpretation of AE results. Hence, the associates obtained through psycholinguistic experiment "are interpreted as lingual representations of certain cognitive features making up the concept
content" [10, p. 40]. All the mentioned subdivisions are
listed after their frequency rank, while meanings that do
not match any subdivision are listed separately. Here is
the formed SF:
SF of the word-stimulus "ap" (left)
I Explanations combined after semantic similarity:
Side opposite to right (20): moxlef-e rst opposite to
right (13), jehat, samt side (5), de ke dar samt-e ap-e
irn (arq va suriye) hastand Islamic State which operates to the left from Iran (in Iraq and Syria) (1), sebqat az
ap mojz ast overtaking on the left is allowed (1).
Left hand (13): dast-e ap left hand (6), barye nevetan monseb nist for writing is uncomfortable (4), man
apdast-am I am left handed (3);
Deviations from right (13): enherf deviation (4), etebh mistake (3), rh-e ap wrong way (3), birhe wandering (2), rh-e eytn devils way (1);
Something bad (9): dar andie-ye dini bad ast bad in
religious view (4), andieh-ye bad bad thoughts (2),
mafhum-e manfi negative idea (1), bad, zet bad, disgusting (1), mahal-e past va pyin low position or place (1);
Precedent texts (7): az dande-ye ap bar-xstan to
wake from the left rib (2), br-e kaj be manzel nemiresad
declined cargo cannot be delivered (2), bham ap
oftdan have bad relationship (1), ap ap negh kardan
look unfriendly (1), xb-e ap dream which cannot come
true (1);
Bound with politics (6): komunism communism (3),
ap az nazar-e siysi left in political view (2), ahzb-e
moxlef-e doulat the opposition parties (1), jaryn-e
siysi political process (1);
Opposes to others (5): moxlef b digarn resits others (4), zendegi be gune-i digar different way of life (1);
Crooked, overturned (3): ap kardan overturn (1),
izi ke kaj va nrst ast something crooked and uneven
(1), kaj odan incline (1).
II Separate explanations:
angotar-e ezdevj wedding ring, dust-e dram I love
it, rst right, oj budan be brave, kamtar be n tavajjoh


miavad it is not paid much attention to, mafhum-e nesbi

relative concept.
Rejected (6). Subtotal: 82+6.
Analysis of this SF should be commented regarding
two points. The first note is bound with considerable
share of the LSV of "left hand" and could be explained by
absence of the grammar gender in Persian. Hence, difference in associations, which is significant for bearers of
other languages having the gender category and may occur while using this word in a different gender form, does
not exist for the Persian speakers. (For example, in Russian and Ukrainian the noun "" (hand) is feminine,
which requires grammatical agreement with appropriate
adjectives). The second note concerns religious aspect.
Negative evaluative component involving religious reminiscences may be explained as follows. Islam teaches that
on the Dooms Day (ruz-e qiymat) everyone will be provided with the list of own life-time deeds (krnme-ye
aml) for final judgement. It is believed that righteous
people will receive the list to their right hand, sinners to
their left hand [14, p. 70].
Finally, to proceed from the semantic level of the analysis to the conceptual one we summarized all non-zero
responses (obtained at the 1st stage) and explanations (obtained at the 2nd stage). Operating total number of entries
() allowed us to perform the cognitive interpretation of
the data. Thus, according to the results of the psycholinguistic experiment the concept of LEFT in the Persian
lingual consciousness has the following content:
"The concept of LEFT is associated in the Persian lingual consciousness mostly with three meanings of the corresponding word, viz.: side (38), left hand (23), left wing
(political) (19). First of all LEFT is a side (38), opposite to
the right (18), one of four geographical directions (15),
spatial benchmark (4), the human body side where heart is
located (1). The LEFT is always bound with the RIGHT
(32): in general it is opposition (10) same as crooked/ overturned opposes straight/ even (11) but also as something
abnormal and different from usual (9), sometimes it is associated with bravery (1) and readiness to fulfil a deed (1).
Basically, however, the LEFT is correlated with something
bad (32) in the mans life, which is confirmed by the actualized precedent texts (7). Through religious component (8)
the LEFT is associated with evil (6), bad thoughts (3),
something mean (1), negative (1), impossible (1), difficult
(1), stupid (1), and bad luck in general (1); therefore the
LEFT is unwanted (2). The LEFT is regarded as deviation from the normal way of life (18): aberration from the
truth (5), wrong way (4), going astray (3), blunder (3), worry (2), and devils way (1).
A few associations to the word "left" are related to traffic accident (2), feeling (2), musical instrument (1). There
is also an opinion that the left is a relative concept (1)
so, it is almost not paid attention to (1). Figuratively the
"left" is associated with darkness (1) and the Moon (1)".
Thus, in this paper we tried to demonstrate how the data obtained in the result of psycholinguistic experiment
could be cognitively interpreted for further reconstruction
of certain concepts. As one can assume this approach
based on the elaborated in the cognitive linguistics methods of interpretation of language meaning can help better
understand the way in which lingual consciousness of
native speakers operates and more widely creates new
opportunities for investigating conceptual structures in
human consciousness through linguistic data.

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October


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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October


Linguosynergetic parameters of euphemia/dysphemia in the English language

L.V. Mosiyevych*
Classical Private University, Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine
*Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected]
Paper received ; Revised ; Accepted for publication
Abstract. The article suggests a new view of euphemia/dysphemia, namely from the angle of a new approach in modern linguistics,
i.e. linguosynergetics. Euphemia/dysphemia are being represented as processes of cyclic self-organization of language system.
Keywords: dysphemism, euphemism, emergence, instability, linguosynergetics, openness, ternary

Modern scientific society tends to apply the transdisciplinary approach to different studies. The linguistic study is
not an exception. The research, described in this article,
aims at the study of euphemia/dysphemia using the transdisciplinary linguosynergetic approach. Linguosynergetics
deals with the problem of language evolution. This article
proves the facts that euphemia/dysphemia as a system is
synergetic phenomenon which reveals the essence and evolution of euphemisms/dysphemisms. The methods of component and discourse analysis, diachronic analysis, the
method of synthesis are used in the research to describe,
explain the synergetic categories of euphemia/dysphemia.
The object of the research is euphemia/dysphemia in the
English language. The subject of the research is the linguosynergetic categories of euphemia/dysphemia. The research is based on the texts by the British writers of the
XVIIIXX c. and on the lexicographic resources. The retrospective view shows the application of linguosynergetic
approach to different linguistic phenomena: synergetics of
a text (Moskalchuk ), discourse (Muratova ;
Pikhtovnykova ), word formation (Yenikeyeva ),
the English language evolution (Dombrovan ).
Linguosynergetic analysis gives an opportunity to reinterpret all the data collected by linguists in order to create a
holistic image of dynamic functional field which could
represent cooperative interaction of pragma-semantic components bringing about the communicative intention. Thus,
euphemia/dysphemia makes a complex open nonlinear
system, which is constantly interacting with the medium
and alternating between stages of chaos and order. The
tendency to deviate from the stable communicative norm
and ignore some previously irrefutable rules of speech
(dysphemisms) can be explained as a consequence of democratization processes in the life of a modern society.
Fundamental aspects of euphemia/dysphemia
Euphemisms/dysphemisms as lingual, social, psychological, pragmatic units have been studied by A. Katsev,
L. Krysin, V. Moskvin, M. Kovshova and many others.
The researchers study different issues of their functioning:
the distinction of taboo and euphemisms, the ways of euphemism formation, classifications, the influence of political correctness on euphemia. Euphemia/dysphemia are
examined from the angle of gender approach and different
discourse types: pedagogical, political, etc.
The content analysis of euphemisms/dysphemisms is focused on their lexical, semantic and functional dimensions.
A euphemism is used as an alternative to a dispreferred
expression, in order to avoid possible loss of face: either
ones own or, by giving offense, that of the audience, or
of some third party. In fact, many euphemisms are alternatives for expressions the speaker or writer would simply
prefer not to use in executing a particular communicative

intention on a given occasion [1]. For example, intimate

relationship or affair instead of sexual relationship.
Whereas the term euphemism is well-known and has
wide currency, dysphemism does not. A dysphemism is
used for precisely the opposite reason that a euphemism is
used, and we define it as follows: A dysphemism is an
expression with connotations that are offensive either
about the denotatum or to the audience, or both, and it is
substituted for a neutral or euphemistic expression for just
that reason. Dysphemisms, then, are used in talking about
ones opponents, things one wishes to show disapproval
of, and things one wishes to be seen to downgrade, to
obfuscate or offend [1]. For example, ass, bird-brain,
pinhead for a stupid person.
Linguosynergetic peculiarities
of euphemisms/dysphemisms
Linguosynergetics regards language as self-optimizing
system closely interconnected with the medium (external
environment) [11, p. ]. Various inner and outer processes give rise to functional fluctuations within the system of discourse and it starts deviating from its wellbalanced harmonious state towards chaos. Striving for
self-preservation the system generates new spontaneous
emergent properties in order to help the discourse functional plane advance to the most ordered system area,
known as the functional attractor, i.e. the communicative
purpose. Surplus irrelevant information is dissipated into
the medium being forgotten by the system.
This research proves that euphemia/dysphemia is a
complex self-developing system that is based on the following synergetic categories: self-organization, nonlinearity, openness, instability, emergence, ternary structure.
The euphemia/dysphemia is a dynamic, flexible and adaptive system. To preserve its vitality and functionality it
must adapt to changing outer conditions, correct its inner
structure and look for the new possibilities of existence.
Emergence is the formation of euphemisms/dysphemisms. The root of them is taboo. Taboo is a prescription
of behavior that effects everyday life. The topics most likely to be treated euphemistically are those associated with
cultural taboos, such as death, disease, sexuality and religion. In other words the emergence of euphemisms is from
an interaction between semantics and the social, or sociohistorical dimensions of language use. Taboos may be categorized as universal (e. g., death: to pass away, to go to
heaven, to depart) or social (sex, excretion, etc.).
Taboo areas paradoxically encourage the opposite verbal
reaction to euphemisms dysphemisms, which are direct
and coarse violations of a taboo: in the field of death one
could cite pushing up daisies, snuff, croak, etc. Taboos
often reveal divisions within a society, there being different
conventions accordingly to class, position, sex and age.


Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October
Emergence is closely connected with one more linguosynergetic category attractors (the goal of the system). Within this category we understand the communicative functions of euphemisms. Among the attractors of
euphemisms we can enumerate: to avoid taboo words
(cloot for the devil), to veil the truth (conflict instead of
war), to valuate some not prestigious professions (sanitation worker for garbage man), to avoid discrimination
(vertically challenged for short, hearing-impaired for
deaf, Afro-American for Black).
Instability has been considered as a disadvantage of
the system. Since language is in constant flux, as are social values, euphemisms can quickly lose their utility.
Good words become bad words and become good words
again in an endless succession [5, p. 13]. Euphemisms
often evolve over time into taboo words themselves,
Words originally intended as euphemisms may lose their
euphemistic value, acquiring the negative connotations of
their referents. In some cases they may be used mockingly
and become dysphemisms.
For example, sleep with was a euphemism for sex for
centuries. Dynamic processes gradually give rise to chaotic
oscillations (fluctuations), which can influence the semantics of euphemisms so that it comes close to the branching
point (bifurcation) a point in the selection of future way
of perceiving the meaning. Nowadays it doesnt conceal the
notion sex. One more example, the feminine terms which
had a neutral or even favourable significance were declined
into their various senses of kept woman, whore (mistress, hussy, puss, lemman, etc.). The bifurcation a swing
to feminine abuse was caused by extralingual factor, the
spread of veneral disease. D.H. Lawrence asserted that
syphilis caused a fundamental rupture in the emotional life
of Renaissance England. [3, p. ]. So throughout the
centuries the euphemisms lose their euphemistic potential
and become dysphemisms.
Some euphemisms have changed their gender trajectory: the word wanton used to have the binary meaning (a
lewd person, a lascivious man or woman), but now it
refers only to a woman. The other euphemisms can
change their meanings drastically: profligate used to
mean abandoned to vice, lost to principle, virtue or decency; shameless in wickedness [10], in our days
wasting money or other things (formal) [7, p. ].
The word intimacy used to have the meaning friendship in the XVIII century [8], but now it is a euphemistic
substitution for copulation [4, p. ]:
I could deny him, and showing him all the respect
and upon all occasions treating him with intimacy and
freedom as if he had been my brother [2].
Even as some euphemisms go mainstream, others are
contaminated by association with the topic they refer to
and become just as dubious as the word they replaced.
It should be noted that dysphemisms are more stable
than euphemisms due to their formation principles: dysphemisms highlight the negative features, euphemisms on
the contrary veil them.
Openness is an exchange of energy and information
with the environment. The system of euphemia/dysphemia
is considered open because it is always in the process of
information exchange between the society and the language. Due to the social factors some taboos disappear, on
the other hand, people become eager to avoid any kind of


discrimination as for sex, age, race, etc. The diachronic

analysis reveals the changes in the euphemistic and dysphemistic chains. Throughout the centuries the external
factors have corrected the evolution of euphemisms/dysphemisms. To illustrate the point, in the Victorian era the
pregnancy was a taboo topic. Respectable English women
didnt get pregnant but were en famille. What produced
their pregnancy was only referred to in the most oblique
terms. There were a lot of other euphemisms for that: in a
family way, in a delicate condition expecting [5, p. 59].
Nowadays pregnancy is not such a touchy topic. Those
euphemisms have become irrelevant and have been replaced by ones which reflect the reality of a modern society: surrogate pregnancy, artificial insemination (IVF). The
word prostitute have also undergone some euphemistic
changes in the diachronic aspect: courtesan, profligate
woman, mistress, lady of pleasure, wanton, strumpet
(XVIII c.) < wrong woman (XIX c.) < tart, trollop (XX c.).
The social factors also influence the dysphemisms: it is
not a sin any more to be an unmarried woman thats why
the word bastard which used to be an offensive word for
a child which was born out of marriage [13, p. ] is
irrelevant nowadays, now it is an insulting word for an
unpleasant or annoying man [7, p. ].
Ternary. Synergetic methods give us a possibility to
examine euphemism/dysphemism not within a binary
opposition but a ternary one, i.e. the synthesis of the three
components. The analysis of these units shows that sometimes it is difficult to distinguish a euphemism and a dysphemism. To illustrate the point, to kick the bucket (to
die) can have euphemistic shade in some humorous conversation with a friend, but dysphemistic while speaking to elderly people [9, p. 60]. The expression canned goods (a
virgin) can be euphemistic in a male company but dysphemistic among women [14, p. 13]. K. Allan names this phenomenon as euphemistic dysphemism and dysphemistic
euphemism [1]. In our view, the most relevant term for it
will be intensives, that is, the communicative situations in
which a euphemism has the signs of a dysphemism and vice
versa. Here we come across a ternary of euphemia/dysphemia. This ternary can be schematized in the following
way: euphemisms intensives dysphemisms.
So the interaction of all synergetic categories leads to
the evolution of euphemia/dysphemia.
Fractals. According to Kotelnicov G. a fractal is the
phenomenon when the subsequent forms of selforganizing systems resemble the structure the previous
ones [12, p. 52]. This property is called self-similarity. In
our research we suppose to name the synonymous paradigms of euphemisms/dysphemisms as fractals. The more
fractals represent the euphemism the stronger it is tabooed. The fractals for the notion sexual relationships
in the XVIII century language system are represented by:
to put smb. to bed, to lie with smb., to get to bed to smb.,
to have smb. for someones bedfellow.
What! consent to lie with him for bread?.. [2].
I must put you to bed to-night together [2].
He expects to have you for his bedfellow tonight [2].
I even resolved, before he asked, to give up my virtue
to him [2].
Another fractal row for the same notion is represented
by the following euphemisms:
That I ought (if I consented to it) to capitulate with


Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October
him that he should never upbraid me with easiness and
consenting too soon [2].
When a woman had been weak enough to yield up the
last point before wedlock it would be adding one
weakness to another to take the man afterwards [2].
It is necessary to say that context has a great impact on
the formation of fractals: in their direct meaning the given
words dont refer to sex and are not euphemisms.
The euphemisms of the XIX century for sexual relationships are represented by: to take of somebodys helplessness, go away in the evening, to have the advantage of
being constantly with her, to be warmer and blinder, etc.
The euphemisms of the XX century: to make love,
coupling, semi-separated, natural progression of things,
functional relationship, sexual intercourse, to do it, to get


laid, to carry smb. into the bedroom, to sleep with, cometo-bed, to go to bed. Among the dysphemisms of this period there are: to shag, to fuck and to bugger.
Conclusion. The analysis of numerous studies suggests
that euphemia/dysphemia can be examined from different
perspectives due to its ambiguity. Transdisciplinary synthesis of theoretical positions makes it possible to track
modern trends in the theory of euphemia/dysphemia:
communicative, social, pragmatic, cognitive. The linguosynergetic approach helps to prove that this language
phenomenon possesses such peculiarities as openness,
instability, emergence and attractors. The most innovative
category applied to euphemisms/dysphemisms is ternary.
The linguosynergetic paradigm is promising in terms of
analysis of the impact of the extralingual environment.

[1] Allan, K. Euphemism, dysphemism cross-varietal synonymy / [8] Ullmann, S. Language and Style / S. Ullmann. Oxford : Basil
K. Allan, K. Burridge / URL: bringdadabeer.com
Blackwell, p.
[2] Defoe, Daniel. Roxana, The Fortunate Mistress / URL: [9] Websters International Dictionary of the English Language.
New York, / URL: http://webstersdictionarycom
[3] Hughes, G. Swearing / G. Hughes. London : Penguin books, [10] Dombrovan, T.Y`. Language as a Synergetic System. Mono .
graph / T.Y. Dombrovan. Odessa: KP OGT, p.
[4] Holder, R.W. Dictionary of euphemisms / R.W. Holder. [11] Kotel`ny`kov, G.A. Theoretical and Applied Synergetics /
Oxford : Oxford University Press, p.
G.A. Kotel`ny`kov. Belgorod: BelGTASM, s.
[5] Keyes R. Unmentionables / R. Keyes. London : John Murray [12] Mosiyevy`ch, L.V. Dichotomy of euphemia/dysphemia in the
Publish, p.
English language / L.V. Mosiyevy`ch. Zaporizhzhya: Za[6] McMillan English Dictionary. New Edition. Oxford :
porizhzhya National Univercity, p.
McMillan Education, p.
[13] Porohnickaja, L.V. (). [The culturological and cognitive
[7] Stormonth, J. Etymological and pronouncing dictionary of the
principles of euphemia in the modern English. Cand. philol.
English language / J. Stormonth. London, / URL:
sc. diss]. Moskva. p. (in Russian).


Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October


Cultural Background as a Precondition of Adequacy in Translation

(based on bringdadabeer.comways short stories)
T. Nekriach, R. Dovganchyna*
Department of Theory and Practice of Translation from English
Institute of Philology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine
*Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected]
Paper received ; Revised ; Accepted for publication
Abstract. The article focuses on the vertical context interpretation in the literary translation of bringdadabeer.comways prose. The experiment proposed to the graduate students helps to outline the basic challenges brought about by the vertical context for the adequate
interpretation of the authors idea and its further reconstruction in translation.
Keywords: vertical context, interpretation, experiment, meaning and sense, understanding, background knowledge, historical and
linguistic commentary

As is known, the professional competence of the translator involves, basically, five components:
proficiency in the native language;
proficiency in a foreign language;
acquaintance with fundamental issues of the translation
theory and methodology;
ability to operate various techniques in different text
appropriate level of cultural background.
Apparently, the first two components are purely linguistic. However, it would be unreasonable to suggest that
their perfect handling could automatically result in a perfect translation. As bringdadabeer.com, a Ukrainian translator and
scholar, wittily remarked: to expect that the knowledge of
two (or more) languages makes one a highly qualified
translator is about as sound as to expect that a person who
has two good hands and an excellent piano would immediately turn a virtuoso pianist.
Without knowing how to transfer the content and form
of an original literary work into a different culture by using different language signs and at minimal losses, it is
impossible to achieve the coveted goal, namely, to create
adequate translation.
The rules and regularities of this transfer have to be
learnt and mastered. The theory of translation, without being prescriptive, teaches how to make correct and conscious decisions in the process of translation, as well as to
justly evaluate the quality of ones own work and the work
of ones colleagues. This third component is closely connected with the forth the proper manoeuvring of translation tactics and successful application of translation toolkit.
The last but not the least component emphasises the
necessity for the translator to possess profound knowledge of historical, literary and cultural issues inherent in
the original.
The latent senses in fiction texts create additional dimensions, thus enriching their inimitable artistic value.
The conflict between the explicit text and its latent sense
is specifically characteristic of a literary text, points out
bringdadabeer.coma, since external events described in the text
very often conceal some inner sense, which is created by
the motives underlying those events, the motives that
prompted the author to turn to those events rather than the
events themselves [1, p]. Those motives can often
turn out to be different for different readers, since they are
not so much read in the text as guessed to be hypothesized
and reconstructed in the readers mind. Each reader views

the events in their own way, with this view not necessarily corresponding to the authors. That is why the probability of forming an identical concrete sense for both the
author and the reader is fairly low. Sometimes the reader
can draw even more out of the text or a separate statement
than the author might have implied or, conversely, miss
the sense the author had in mind. The thorough understanding of the authors text requires its scrupulous analysis and the comparison of all its elements and constituents. Thus, the substitution of some language signs for
others cannot be carried out outside the context, because
the means of transferring superficial meanings to the levels of latent sense can vary, including even nonverbalized means such as background knowledge, pauses,
intonation, parcellation, etc.
bringdadabeer.comet proposes to designate this latent sense as
vertical context: Vertical context is a philological problem resolving the ways and reasons for the writer to expect the ability of the reader to perceive the historical and
philological information which is endowed objectively in
the text created by this writer [2, p.8 emphasised by
the author]. This problem acquires a particular significance for translation nowadays, when the generally low
level of philological culture results in ruining the vertical
context and reduces the reading of literature, particularly
classic literature, to a primitive reception of the plot. At
present the training of future translators is deficient in
serious methodological categories and parameters for the
interpretation of a literary text, which are indispensable
for adequate translation. Needless to say, the degree and
depth of the latent sense perception depends upon various
factors inherent in the translators personality. It is not
just erudition and education, but also a subtle intuition,
deep insights, spirituality as well as the flair for words
and intonation. However, background knowledge is closely connected with the capability to access, measure and
interpret the underlying plot. bringdadabeer.comet defines background knowledge as a sociocultural stock to characterize
artistic writing that can be regarded as a segment in language and cultural studies, while the vertical context is
the historical and philological context of a specific literary
work, thus making it a segment of philology [ibid, p.5].
Translation students must be taught at least the historical
and philological minimum to develop the skills of interpreting a literary text.
In order to find out whether translation students can
encompass the vertical context, we turned to the stories of


Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(14), Issue: 65, October
Ernest Hemingway, a prominent American author famous
for creating latent senses. One hundred translation students (actually, one hundred and three) of the III-V years
of studying at the Taras Shevchenko National University
in Kyiv were asked the following questions after reading
one of the best known stories by Ernest Hemingway Cat
in the Rain:
1. Where is the scene laid? Why do you think the American couple has arrived in this country? Justify your
2. What historical period do the events of the story take
place in? Find indications in the text.
3. How old are the husband and wife?
4. How can their relationship be defined:
loving, tender, fond;
Substantiate your answers with references to the text.
5. How long can they have been married? Give your
6. What is the role of the hotel keeper in the story?
7. Do certain specific textual elements have a symbolic
meaning? If so, which ones and why?
8. Is the big tortoise-shell cat the same cat in the
rain? Prove your point.
9. Does the story have a regular, canonical beginning
and ending?
What do you think can happen with the couple in the
Symptomatically, all the students outlined the action of
the story as occurred a few years after the war, but very
few realized that it was the First, not the Second, World
War. The text has a direct marker the war monument, to look at which the Italians came from long way
off, so the monument is a new one, freshly set up. Only 6
% of the respondents recalled the lost generation,
though without understanding the essence of this social,
historical and psychological phenomenon. However, the
lost generation is the key to understanding both this
story and Hemingways entire work between the two
world wars. All the students, without exception, defined
the relationship between the man and his wife in the story
as indifferent, but their views on the reasons for it varied:
some think that the main reason lies in their age disparity,
others see it in the dulling of their feelings throughout
their long marriage, still others that they cant have
children. There was even a version that the American wife
had cancer, because her hair was bobbed (as if after
chemotherapy), and she dreamed of having long hair and
making a big knot at the back that she could feel. Sad it is,
but even these painful problems of today cannot but tell
on the interpretation of literary pieces. Perhaps this accounts for the high value of literature: each generation
will find in the more significant works the reflection of
acute problems, which forever make a coveted emotional
and aesthetical impact on the reader. The translator, however, cannot be guided by the emotional perception solely: s/he should always remain a poised, sensible and
thoughtful interpreter of the authors intent.
The questions asked in the experiment involve the
knowledge of the historical and social atmosphere in Europe and the USA after the First World War, which actu-


ally gave birth to the lost generation with its individualpsychological disharmony. This is Hemingways recurrent motive which did not have to be brought home to his
contemporaries, not to mention his countrymen. Understanding the situation in general, the authors peers could
easily restore the symbolic and psychological structure of
the whole work, but in the course of time this understanding underwent changes. Our experiment has shown principal discrepancies.
The respondents do not realize that George the
American husband is embittered by the war and has
lost his bearings in life. So, like Hemingway himself and
a lot of other men, both real and fictional, who went
through the war, he cannot find a secure place for himself
and travels from country to country, reluctant to anchor
anywhere, to have children, to settle down in his own
home. The ferocious whirlpool of the First World War
made them realize very painfully the fragility of human
life, the flimsiness of shelter which can be turned into a
human slaughterhouse in no time. The war ruined all the
ideals of the 19th century, destroyed the preceding value
system, with the new value system not having been
formed yet. Thats what happened to George in the story.
Bearing in mind the conditions under which the story was
written and evaluating its place in bringdadabeer.comways literary
heritage, in other words, taking into account extratextual
and subtextual factors, we outline Georges age as 25 or
26, not , as most students felt it, considering his
general indifference and despondency. The hotel owner,
padrone, on the contrary, is an old man who belongs to
a different generation and has seen quite a number of social disasters, so the war has not shattered his ideas of the
Good and the Evil. He remains faithful to his basic ethical
principles, committed to his essential life cause, respectful
and sympathetic towards people. These two characters are
constructed on contrast. However, it is only possible to
see this contrast with the adequate amount of background
knowledge. The bloody wheel of the war had rolled

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