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## Pinch analysis

Pinch analysis is a methodology for minimising energy abled practical application of the technique.

consumption of chemical processes by calculating ther- In he joined University of Manchester Institute of

modynamically feasible energy targets (or minimum en-

Technology (UMIST, present day University of Manch-

ergy consumption) and achieving them by optimising heat ester) to continue the work. In he set up a consul-

recovery systems, energy supply methods and process op-

tation rm known as Linnho March International later

erating conditions. It is also known as process integration, acquired by KBC Energy Services.

heat integration, energy integration or pinch technology.

Many renements have been developed since and used in

The process data is represented as a set of energy ows, a wide range of industries, including extension to heat and

or streams, as a function of heat load (kW) against tem- power systems and non-process situations. Both detailed

perature (deg C). These data are combined for all the and simplied (spreadsheet) programs are now available

streams in the plant to give composite curves, one for all to calculate the energy targets. See Pinch Analysis Soft-

hot streams (releasing heat) and one for all cold streams ware below.

(requiring heat). The point of closest approach between

the hot and cold composite curves is the pinch point (or In recent years, Pinch analysis has been extended beyond

just pinch) with a hot stream pinch temperature and a energy applications. It now includes:

cold stream pinch temperature. This is where the de-

sign is most constrained. Hence, by nding this point Mass Exchange Networks (El-Halwagi and

and starting the design there, the energy targets can be Manousiouthakis, )

achieved using heat exchangers to recover heat between

Water pinch (Yaping Wang and Robin Smith, ;

hot and cold streams in two separate systems, one for tem-

Nick Hallale, ; Prakash and Shenoy, )

peratures above pinch temperatures and one for tempera-

tures below pinch temperatures. In practice, during the Hydrogen pinch (Nick Hallale et al., ; Agrawal

pinch analysis of an existing design, often cross-pinch and Shenoy, )

exchanges of heat are found between a hot stream with

its temperature above the pinch and a cold stream below

the pinch. Removal of those exchangers by alternative 2 Weaknesses

matching makes the process reach its energy target.

Classical pinch-analysis primarily calculates the energy

costs for the heating and cooling utility. At the pinch

1 History point, where the hot and cold streams are the most con-

strained, large heat exchangers are required to transfer

heat between the hot and cold streams. Large heat ex-

In , Ed Hohmann stated in his PhD that 'one can changers entail high investment costs. In order to reduce

compute the least amount of hot and cold utilities re- capital cost, in practice a minimum temperature dier-

quired for a process without knowing the heat exchanger ence ( T) at the pinch point is demanded, e.g., 10 C. It

network that could accomplish it. One also can estimate is possible to estimate the heat exchanger area and capital

the heat exchange area required'. cost, and hence the optimal T minimum value. How-

In late , Ph.D. student Bodo Linnho under the su- ever, the cost curve is quite at and the optimum may be

pervision of Dr John Flower at the University of Leeds[1] aected by topology traps. The pinch method is not

showed the existence in many processes of a heat integra- always appropriate for simple networks or where severe

tion bottleneck, the pinch, which laid the basis for the operating constraints exist. Kemp () discusses these

technique, known today as pinch-analysis. At that time aspects in detail.

he had joined Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) where

he led practical applications and further method develop-

ment. 3 Recent Developments[2]

Bodo Linnho developed the 'Problem Table', an algo-

rithm for calculating the energy targets and worked out The problem of integrating heat between hot and cold

the basis for a calculation of the surface area required, streams, and nding the optimal network, in particular

known as the spaghetti network. These algorithms en- in terms of costs, may today be solved with numerical

1

2 6 PINCH ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

algorithms. The network can be formulated as a so- Nick Hallale, Ian Moore, Dennis Vauk, Hydro-

called mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) gen optimization at minimal investment, Petroleum

problem and solved with an appropriate numerical solver. Technology Quarterly (PTQ), Spring ()

Nevertheless, large-scale MINLP problems can still be

hard to solve for todays numerical algorithms. Alterna- Agrawal, V. and U. V. Shenoy, , Unied Con-

tively, some attempts were made to formulate the MINLP ceptual Approach to Targeting and Design of Water

problems to mixed integer linear problems, where then and Hydrogen Networks, AIChE J., 52(3),

possible networks are screened and optimized. For sim-

ple networks of a few streams and heat exchangers, hand Wang, Y. P. and Smith, R. (). Wastewater

design methods with simple targeting software are often Minimisation. Chemical Engineering Science.

adequate, and aid the engineer in understanding the pro-

cess.

Prakash, R. and Shenoy, U.V. () Targeting and

Design of Water Networks for Fixed Flowrate and

4 See also Fixed Contaminant Load Operations. Chemical En-

gineering Science. 60(1),

CHP Directive de Klerk, LW, de Klerk , MP and van der West-

Energy policy of the European Union huizen, D Improvements in hydrometallurgical

uranium circuit capital and operating costs by water

Relative cost of electricity generated by dierent management and integration of utility and process

sources energy targets AusImm Conference, U

Cogeneration

Process owsheeting 6 Pinch analysis software

HeatIT - Free (light) version of Pinch Analysis soft-

5 References ware that runs in Excel - developed by Pinchco, a

consultancy company oering expert advice on en-

[1] Ebrahim, M.; Kawari, Al- (). Pinch technology: an ergy related matters

ecient tool for chemical-plant energy and capital-cost

Pinchleni - Freeware developed by Laboratoire

saving. Applied Energy. doi/S

(99) d'Energtique Industrielle de l'Ecole Polytechnique

Fdrale de Lausanne, Switzerland

[2] Furman, Kevin C.; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V. ().

A Critical Review and Annotated Bibliography for Heat Simulis Pinch- Tool from ProSim SA that can be

Exchanger Network Synthesis in the 20th Century. In- used directly in Excel and that is dedicated to the di-

dustrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 41 (10): agnosis and the energy integration of the processes.

doi/iee.

Pinexo - an extensive software oering alterna-

tive solutions with their payback times. Developed

El-Halwagi, M. M. and V. Manousiouthakis, ,

out of research at Chalmers Technical University,

Synthesis of Mass Exchange Networks, AIChE J.,

Gothenburg Sweden

35(8),

Integration - A practical and low-cost pro-

Kemp, I.C. (). Pinch Analysis and Pro-

cess integration computation tool developed by

cess Integration: A User Guide on Process Inte-

CanmetENERGY, Canadas leading research and

gration for the Ecient Use of Energy, 2nd edi-

technology organization in the eld of clean energy.

tion. Includes spreadsheet software. Butterworth-

Heinemann. ISBN (1st edition:

Linnho et al., ).

Shenoy, U.V. (). Heat Exchanger Network

Synthesis: Process Optimization by Energy and Re-

source Analysis. Includes two computer disks.

Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX, USA.

ISBN

Hallale, Nick. (). A New Graphical Targeting

Method for Water Minimisation. Advances in En-

vironmental Research. 6(3):

3

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